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To download the copyrighted questionnaires on the CSDT web site, you must agree to our terms and conditions.

All academic use is permitted, but you must obtain permission from the Center for Self-Determination Theory for commercial use.

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Perceptions of Parents Scales (POPS)

The Perceptions of Parents Scales concern the degree to which parents provide what SDT considers an optimal parenting context (Grolnick, Deci, & Ryan, 1997). The scales are completed by children to describe their mothers and their fathers.


Main Questionnaire



Internalization within the family: The self-determination theory perspective

Grolnick, W. S. Deci, E. L. Ryan, R. M.

(1991) Journal of Educational Psychology

The inner resources for school performance: Motivational mediators of children's perceptions of their parents

Grolnick, W. S. Ryan, R. M. Deci, E. L.

(2009) Journal of Research in Personality

The path taken: Consequences of attaining intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations in post-college life

Niemiec, C. P. Ryan, R. M. Deci, E. L.